A major challenge, in contrast, remains the need for Trusted Identities, especially of the IoT end nodes. For the higher system levels the problem has been solved, using public-key certificates, MAC-address management and managing these with Secure Elements. However, the end node remains the biggest problem. The lack of trustworthy identities, especially in the lowest part of these connected networks, remains the most vulnerable element of the IoT, restricting its broad deployment. Due to these weak or missing identities, hacking an end-node to subvert a network is still relatively easy. This weakness of IoT end nodes makes it very difficult or even impossible to build reliable IoT applications on top of them.